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Stroke and Turn judge info

If you have signed up to volunteer in the Stroke and Turn judge positon here is some helpful information to get you started or refresh your memory.

Stroke and Turn Video Link:

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLJUznzZd1j8Urx4pxOW9gYFCzrWMb0jgx

USA Stroke and Turn DQ Slip:

DQ slip example

Stroke and Turn Definitions:

Definitions:
● Arm––That part of the body that extends from the shoulder to the wrist
● Body––The torso, including the shoulders and hips
● Finish––The instant that a swimmer touches the wall at the end of the prescribed
distance
● Horizontal––Parallel to the surface of the water
● May––Permissive, not mandatory
● On the Back––Position of the body when the shoulders are at or past vertical towards
the back
● On the Breast––Position of the body when the shoulders are at or past vertical towards
the breast
● Propulsive––Having the power to propel
● Scissor Kick––Use of the top of the instep of one foot and the bottom of the other foot in
the propulsive part of the kick
● Shall––Mandatory
● Simultaneously––Occurring at the same time
● Touch––Contact with the end of the course
● Turn––A point where the swimmers reverse or change direction
● Vertical––Perpendicular to the water surface
● Wall––Vertical portion of the pool, contiguous surfaces of the deck and overflow gutter,
the front portion of the starting block or platform, or the touchpad at the end of the
course


Breaststroke:
● Start: Forward start.
● Stroke: Body kept on breast. Stroke cycle is one arm pull and one leg kick in that order.
Simultaneous arm movement in same horizontal plane. After start and each turn one
arm stroke may be completely back to legs. Head must break surface at widest part of
second pull. Recovery by the hands from the breast-on, under, or over the water. Elbows
under water except last stroke before turn or finish.
● Kick: After start and each turn, prior to the first breaststroke kick, a single butterfly kick is
permitted. Movement of the legs shall be simultaneous vertically and horizontally. Feet
turned out during propulsive part of kick. No alternating, scissors, or butterfly kick, except
as stated, is allowed.
● Turns/Finish:Shoulders at or past vertical toward breast when feet leave wall. Touch
shall be made with both hands separated and simultaneously at, above, or below the
water surface. At the last stroke before the turn and at the finish an arm stroke not
followed by a leg kick is permitted. Head may be submerged after the last arm pull prior
to the touch, provided it breaks the surface of the water at some point during the last
complete or incomplete stroke cycle preceding the touch.
● Common Infractions:
○ Head did not break surface of water by widest part of second stroke
○ Butterfly kick
○ Scissors kick
○ Alternating kick
○ Arms past hipline
○ Arms not in same horizontal plane
○ One hand touch
○ Non-simultaneous touch


Butterfly:
● Start:Forward start
● Stroke:Body kept on breast. Multiple kicks permitted but first arm pull must bring
swimmer to the surface. Must break surface throughout the race except swimmer may
be submerged after start and each turn not more than 15 meters where head must break
surface. Arms, shoulder to wrist, brought forward over water and pulled back
simultaneously.
● Kick:Simultaneous up and down movement. No alternating, scissors, or breaststroke
kicking movements.
● Turns/Finish:Shoulders at or past vertical toward breast when the swimmer leaves the
wall. Touch should be made with both hands separated and simultaneous at, above, or
below the water surface.
● Common Infractions:
○ Alternating kick
○ Breaststroke kick
○ Scissors kick
○ Non-simultaneous arms
○ Underwater recovery
○ One hand touch
○ Non-simultaneous touch


Backstroke:
● Start:In water facing start end with both hands on gutter or starting grips.
○ Guttered pool- Feet/toes may be above the water, but may not be in, on, above
lip, or bent over the gutter at any time before or after start.
● Stroke/Kick: Any style as long as swimmer remains on the back. Must break surface
throughout the race except swimmer may be submerged after start and each turn not
more than 15 meters where head must break surface.
● Turns: During turn swimmer may go past vertical to the breast and may utilize a
continuous single or continuous simultaneous double arm pull to initiate the turn. Some
part of the swimmer must touch the wall at the completion of each length. Shoulders at
or past vertical toward back when feet leave wall.
● Finish:Some part of swimmer must touch the wall while on the back.
● Common Infractions
○ Toes above lip of gutter after start
○ Head did not break surface of water by 15 meter mark
○ Shoulders past vertical towards breast
○ Delay initiating arm pull
○ Delay initiating turn
○ Re-submerged


Freestyle:
● Start: Forward start.
● Stroke/Kick: Any style may be used. Must break surface throughout the race except
swimmer may be submerged after start and each turn not more than 15 meters where
head must break surface.
● Turns/Finish:Some part of swimmer must touch the wall at completion of each length or
required distance.
● Common Infractions:
○ Walking on/springing from bottom
○ No touch at turn


IM (Individual Medley):
● Start:Forward start
● Stroke/Kick: Rules for each stroke apply. Must swim ¼ of event distance as prescribed in
stroke, in order of Butterfly, Backstroke, Breaststroke, and Freestyle. May not swim in
the style of the other three strokes during the freestyle leg.
● Turns/Finish:Intermediate turns conform to the turn rules for the stroke. Transition turns
conform to the finish rules for the stroke.
● Common Infractions:
○ Swimming more than ¼ of the race in the style of butterfly, backstroke, or
breaststroke