AARDVARK Swim & Sport   Our team’s local supplier of all swimming items. Call 703-631-6045 for any information on swimming gear.

Age Group Swimming  The program through which USS provides fair and open competition for its younger members. It is designed to encourage maximum participation, provide an educational experience, enhance physical and mental conditioning, and develop a rich base of swimming talent. The six nationally-recognized age groups are 10 and Under, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18, and 15-18. Local meets may also include events for 8 and Unders and for single age categories.

Block The starting platform.

Bulkhead A wall constructed to divide a pool into different courses, such as to divide a 50-meter pool into two 25-yard courses.w

C-AAA Time Chart This explains the progression of your swimmer (time-wise) through United States Swimming (See Chart in this book).

Circle Swimming Practice of staying to the right of the black line when swimming in a lane to enable more swimmers to swim in the lane.

Coach A person who trains and teaches athletes in the sport of swimming.

Code of Conduct An agreement signed by a swimmer, coach, and parent stating that the swimmer will abide by certain behavioral guidelines.

Cut Slang for qualifying time . A minimum time standard necessary to qualify for a particular meet or event.

Deck Entries An entry that is turned in on the deck of a USS Meet. If accepted by the meet manager, a fee will normally be assessed for each entry.

Distance Term used to refer to events over 400 meters or 500 yards.

DQ Disqualification . This occurs when a swimmer has committed an infraction of some kind, e.g., a false start or a flutter kick in butterfly. A disqualified swimmer is not eligible to receive awards, nor can the time be used as an official time.

Drill An exercise used to improve stroke technique that involves only a portion or part of a stroke.

Dry Land Training Training done out of the water that aids and enhances swimming performance. This usually includes stretching, calisthenics, and/or weight training.

Entry Form Form used by a swimmer to apply for entry to a competition. See Section VI of this booklet for a more detailed discussion of this topic.

False Start Occurs when a swimmer moves before the starting signal is given to commence an event. In USS meets, one (1) false start will result in disqualification.

Final The championship heat of an event in which the top swimmers from the preliminaries compete.

Finish The final phase of the race; the touch at the end of the race.

Flags Pennants attached to a wire stretched across a pool 5 yards (short course) or 5 meters (long course) from each end of the pool. These flags enable backstrokers to gauge the distance to a wall or bulkhead in order to execute a turn/finish more precisely.

Goal A swimmer’s specific short-term and/or long-term time achievement.

Gutter A trough along the edge of the pool into which overflow water runs. This water is then re-circulated through the pool’s filtration system.

I.M . Slang for ’Individual Medley’, an event in which a swimmer uses all four strokes in the following order: butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, freestyle.

Junior Nationals National-level meets for swimmers age 18 and under who meet specified qualifying time standards. Swimmers are limited to four (4) individual events and three (3) relay events. Junior Nationals, one in the East and one in the West, are held for both short- and long-course seasons.

Lap Counter A set of plastic display numbers used to inform a swimmer of laps completed during a distance race. Also refers to the person stationed at the end of the pool opposite the start who counts laps for the swimmer and changes the display numbers.

Long Course A pool of 50 meters in length. USS conducts most of its summer competitions in long course pools.

Long Distance Term used to refer to events of 800 to 1500 meters, and to events from 1000 to 1650 yards in length.

Local Swimming Committee (LSC) Organizations with supervisory responsibilities for certain geographic boundaries, as designated by United States Swimming. Our LSC is Potomac Valley Swimming (PVS).

LSC Blue Ribbon Camp A developmental camp, designed for swimmers ages 10-14 who have not had prior USS camp experience. USS provides all necessary materials, including camp manuals, and other items, such as T-shirts and caps. Topics include mental training, goal setting, and water sessions.

LSC National Age Group Camp A 2-day camp for an LSC’s top 25 11-13 year old male and top 25 11-13 year old female swimmers. Campers are challenged, both in and out of the water, by a staff of local coaches chosen by the LSC. Team spirit and teamwork are emphasized during these camps. Team meetings focus on goal setting, nutrition, time management, leadership activities, relaxation, visualization, and more. USS provides a Camp Manual, as well as a T-shirt and cap for each participant.

LSC Racing Camp A 1-day camp for an LSC’s top 25 9-11 year old male and top 25 9-11 year old female swimmers. A staff selected by the LSC motivates, educates, and tests participants. USS provides all necessary materials, including camp manuals, as well as a T-shirt and cap for each swimmer. Topics include nutrition, training terminology, leadership training, positive self-talk, and water sessions.

Meet A competition designed to be a learning experience. By implementing what has been learned in practice, swimmers test themselves against the clock to measure improvement.

Meet Entry Box Located at pool with our team name on it. This is where all your entry sheets must be placed to be entered in meets.

Meet Late Entries Once you have missed our team’s meet entry date, (date can be found at the bottom of all meet entry sheets), it is too late to enter that particular meet. NO Late Entries Accepted!

Meet Sheet Check the bulletin board for due dates, meet locations, starting times, qualifying times, entry fees, etc. That is your Responsibility, not the responsibility of the coaches.

Middle Distance Term used to refer to events of 200 - 500 yards and to events from 200 - 400 meters.

Mini Meet A swim meet for 8 year olds and under only. Your age as of the first day of the meet determines your age for the whole meet.

National Age Group Time Standards Time standards derived from the previous years’ results that are broken down, within age and gender groupings, by the following divisions: B, BB, A, AA, AAA, AAAA. These designations are National and should be used as motivational times. Many LSCs have their own time standards.

National Reportable Times/Top 16 Time standards set for both short and long course events, based on the previous years’ achievements. Only times meeting these standards may be submitted for consideration each year. The Top 16 submitted times in each event are recognized.

Negative Split Swimming the second half of a race in a time equal to or faster than that for the first half.

Official A judge on the deck of the pool at a sanctioned competition who enforces USS rules. These are stroke and turn judges, administrative officials, starters, timers, and referees.

Officials’ Clinics Instructional clinics and workshops offered by Potomac Valley Swimming (PVS) for those interested in serving as United States Swimming (U.S.S.) officials at swim meets under the auspices of PVS. Support YORK Swim Club and get certified. Call our officials chairmen for more information.

Open Water Swims Any freestyle event over 1500 meters normally conducted in a natural body of water, such as a lake, river or ocean.

Pace Clock Large clock, usually with a large sweep second hand and a smaller minute hand (may also be digital), that is visible from the water and used to check pace or maintain intervals in practice.

Potomac Valley Swim Meets Meets that take place on designated weekends and include a variety of events and distances. Swimmers may elect to swim Saturday, Sunday, or both days. Be sure to check the qualifying times on the posted meet sheet.

Prelims Slang for preliminaries; may also be called ’heats’ or ’trials.’ Refers to races in which swimmers attempt to qualify for the championship or consolation finals of an event.

Q-Time Qualifying time necessary to compete in a particular event and/or competition.

Relay An event in which four (4) swimmers compete together as a team to achieve one time.

Safety The condition of being safe. Safety procedures are designed to prevent accidents.

Scratch To withdraw from an event in a competition.

Short Course
A pool 25-yards or 25-meters in length. USS conducts most of its winter competition in short course yard pools.

Split A time recorded from the official start of an event to the completion of an initial portion of the event. Also, the time for one of the four members of a relay team. Under certain conditions, such as the lead-off swim of a relay event or the lead-off portion of an individual event, splits may also be used as official times.

Sprint Events of shorter distances--50 or 100 yards/meters. Also, in training, to swim as fast as possible for a short distance.

Streamline The position used by a swimmer immediately after starting an event of pushing off a wall after a turn that is designed to reduce water resistance.

Taper The final preparation phase prior to a major competition, sometime referred to as ’rest’. In some situations, older, more experienced swimmers shave their entire bodies to reduce water resistance and heighten sensation in the water.

Team Information Line (703-378-5952) gives all the team news for the upcoming week. Usually updated on Tuesday mornings.

Time Conversion Short Course (Meters) to Short Course (Yards) - To convert a meter (M) time to a yard (Y) time for an event that is twice the distance, double the meter time. For example: Your time for the 25M Fly is 19.50. A reasonable time for 50Y Fly is 39.00 (19.50 x 2 = 39.00)

Time Projection
Projecting an IM Time from Individual Event Times - to calculate a 100Y IM time from the individual events, add all four 50Y times, divide by 2, then add 10%. For example: Your individual 50Y event times are Fly=40.00; Back=38.00; Breast=43.00; Free=35.00. Total time of 4 events = 156.00 sec; divided by 2 = 78.00 sec; plus 10% (7.8) = 86.00 sec (approx). A reasonable time for 100Y IM = 1:26.00 (86.00 sec = 1 min and 26 sec).

Projecting an IM Time From Other IMs - To calculate a 200Y IM time from a 100Y IM time (or a 400Y time from a 200Y time), double the time of the shorter distance and then add 10%. For example, your 100Y IM time = 1:25.80 or 85.80 sec; twice your 100Y time = 171.60 sec; plus 10% (17.16) = 188.76 sec. Reasonable time for 200Y IM = 3:08.76

Time Standard The time standard for any event in a meet is the cutoff time for that event. Most meets have cutoff times listed on their entry meet sheet and may designate NFT (no faster than) or NST (no Slower than).

Time Trial A time-only swim that is not part of a regular meet .

Touch Pad A large, pressure-sensitive board at the finish-end of each lane that automatically registers a swimmer’s time and sends the time electronically to the timing system.

United States Swimming USS - The governing body of swimming in the United States.

USS Identification Number A registration number assigned to a swimmer upon joining United States Swimming. The membership card with this number may be required at any given competition. The USS identification number is 14 characters long (no spaces or hyphens), constructed as follows: Chars 1-6 = Birthdate in month, date, year format (2 digits each); Chars 7-9 = First 3 letters of the swimmer’s first name; Char 10 = Swimmer’s middle initial; Chars 11-14 = First 4 letters of the swimmer’s last name. Use an asterisk (*) for the middle initial if the swimmer has none and as a filler for the first and last names if they are shorter than the required length. For example, the USS identification number for ’Ed A. Brown, born February 16, 1984 would be 021684ED*ABROW.

Warm Down Low intensity swimming used by swimmers after a race or main practice set to rid the body of excess lactic acid and to gradually reduce heart rate and respiration.

Warm Up Low intensity swimming used by swimmers prior to a race or main practice set to get muscles loose and warm. Warm up gradually increases heart rate and respiration, and helps to prevent injury.

Stop watches used to time swimmers during a competition. When automatic electronic equipment is used, watches serve as a back-up method.